BCG matrix (or growth-share matrix) is a corporate planning tool, which is offered to portray this firm brand investment portfolio or SBUs on a quadrant follow me relative market share axis (horizontal axis) and also speed of market development (vertical axis) axis.

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Growth-share matrix is a service tool, which supplies relative sector share and industry expansion rate determinants to advice the potential of service brand portfolio and also suggest further investment strategies.

Understanding the tool

BCG procession is a framework produced by Boston Consulting group to advice the strategic place of the business brand portfolio and its potential. That classifies organization portfolio into four categories based upon industry attractiveness (growth price of the industry) and also competitive place (relative industry share). These two dimensions reveal likely profitability that the business portfolio in regards to cash necessary to support that unit and also cash produced by it. The general purpose of the evaluation is to aid understand, which brand the firm need to invest in and which ones need to be divested.


Relative market share. one of the dimensions supplied to evaluate business portfolio is relative market share. Greater corporate’s sector share results in greater cash returns. This is due to the fact that a firm the produces more, services from higher economies the scale and also experience curve, which results in greater profits. Nonetheless, the is worth to note that some firms might experience the exact same benefits with lower production outputs and lower sector share.

Market expansion rate. High market expansion rate means greater earnings and also sometimes profits however it additionally consumes lots of cash, which is offered as invest to stimulate additional growth. Therefore, company units that operate in rapid growth industries are cash users and are worth investing in only when they are expected to flourish or maintain industry share in the future.

There are 4 quadrants right into which this firm brands are classified:

Dogs. Dogs organize low market share compared to competitors and operate in a slowly growing market. In general, they space not precious investing in because they generate low or negative cash returns. Yet this is not constantly the truth. Part dogs may be rewarding for long duration of time, they may provide synergies for other brands or SBUs or simple act as a defense come counter rivals moves. Therefore, it is always important to execute deeper evaluation of every brand or SBU to make certain they are not worth investing in or have to be divested.Strategic choices: Retrenchment, divestiture, liquidation

Cash cows. Cash cows are the most financially rewarding brands and also should it is in “milked” to administer as lot cash together possible. The cash acquired from “cows” need to be invested into stars to assistance their more growth. According to growth-share matrix, corporates must not invest right into cash cows to induce growth but only to assistance them so they can maintain their existing market share. Again, this is not always the truth. Cash cows are usually big corporations or SBUs that are capable of innovating brand-new products or processes, which might become new stars. If there would be no assistance for cash cows, they would not be capable of such innovations.Strategic choices: Product development, diversification, divestiture, retrenchment

Stars. Stars run in high growth industries and also maintain high sector share. Stars space both cash generators and also cash users. They room the main units in i beg your pardon the firm should invest that is money, because stars space expected to end up being cash cows and also generate optimistic cash flows. Yet, not all stars end up being cash flows. This is specifically true in rapidly transforming industries, where new innovative assets can shortly be outcompeted by new technological advancements, therefore a star instead of coming to be a cash cow, i do not care a dog.Strategic choices: upright integration, horizontal integration, industry penetration, industry development, product development

Question marks. inquiry marks are the brands the require much closer consideration. They hold low industry share in fast cultivation markets consuming large amount the cash and incurring losses. It has actually potential to get market share and become a star, which would certainly later come to be cash cow. Concern marks carry out not always succeed and even after large amount of invest they battle to gain market share and eventually become dogs. Therefore, they require really close consideration to decision if they are worth investing in or not.Strategic choices: market penetration, market development, product development, divestiture

BCG procession quadrants are streamlined versions of the reality and cannot be used blindly. Lock can aid as basic investment guidelines but should not change strategic thinking. Business should rely on administration judgement, company unit strengths and also weaknesses and external environment determinants to make much more reasonable invest decisions.

Advantages and also disadvantages

Benefits the the matrix:

Easy come perform;Helps to know the strategy positions of company portfolio;It’s a good starting suggest for further much more thorough analysis.

Growth-share analysis has been heavily criticized for its oversimplification and also lack of valuable application. Complying with are the main limitations of the analysis:

Business have the right to only it is in classified to four quadrants. It deserve to be confusing to classify one SBU that drops right in the middle.It walk not specify what ‘market’ is. Businesses have the right to be classified as cash cows, if they room actually dogs, or vice versa.Does not encompass other external factors that may change the instance completely.Market share and also industry expansion are not the only determinants of profitability. Besides, high sector share does no necessarily typical high profits.It denies that synergies between different devices exist. Dogs have the right to be as vital as cash cows to businesses if it help to attain competitive benefit for the rest of the company.

Using the tool

Although BCG analysis has lost its prominence due to countless limitations, it have the right to still it is in a useful tool if performed by complying with these steps:

Step 1. Pick the unitStep 2. Define the marketStep 3. Calculation relative sector shareStep 4. Find out market expansion rateStep 5. Attract the circles on a matrix

Step 1. Pick the unit. BCG matrix deserve to be offered to analysis SBUs, different brands, products or a firm together a unit itself. I m sorry unit will be favored will have an affect on the totality analysis. Therefore, that is necessary to specify the unit because that which you’ll perform the analysis.

Step 2. Define the market. specifying the market is among the most necessary things to do in this analysis. This is since incorrectly characterized market may lead to negative classification. For example, if us would carry out the evaluation for the Daimler’s Mercedes-Benz automobile brand in the passenger vehicle market the would finish up as a dog (it holds less than 20% relative market share), yet it would certainly be a cash cow in the luxury car market. It is important to plainly define the market to much better understand firm’s investment portfolio position.

Step 3. Calculation relative sector share. Relative sector share have the right to be calculate in state of revenues or market share. It is calculation by dividing your own brand’s industry share (revenues) by the industry share (or revenues) of her largest competitor in that industry. Because that example, if her competitor’s sector share in refrigerator’s sector was 25% and your that company brand industry share to be 10% in the exact same year, your relative industry share would certainly be just 0.4. Relative market share is offered on x-axis. It’s height left edge is set at 1, midpoint in ~ 0.5 and also top right corner at 0 (see the example listed below for this).


Step 4. Discover out market development rate. The industry expansion rate deserve to be discovered in market reports, which room usually available online because that free. That can also be calculate by looking at mean revenue development of the leading market firms. Market expansion rate is measure up in percent terms. The midpoint of the y-axis is usually collection at 10% growth rate, yet this have the right to vary. Some industries prosper for years however at typical rate of 1 or 2% every year. Therefore, as soon as doing the evaluation you should find out what expansion rate is watched as far-ranging (midpoint) to different cash cows native stars and also question marks native dogs.

Step 5. Draw the one on a matrix. ~ calculating every the measures, friend should have the ability to plot her brands on the matrix. You should do this by illustration a circle for each brand. The dimension of the circle must correspond come the ratio of service revenue generated by that brand.

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Corporate ‘A’ BCG matrix

BrandRevenues% of that company revenuesLargest rival’s industry shareYour brand’s industry shareRelative market shareMarket expansion rateBrand 1Brand 2Brand 3Brand 4


This instance was created to show how to address a relative sector share higher than 100% and with an unfavorable market growth.

Corporate ‘B’ BCG matrix

BrandRevenues% of corporate revenuesLargest rival’s industry shareYour brand’s market shareRelative market shareMarket expansion rateBrand 1Brand 2Brand 3Brand 4