Scope Management

Plan Scope Management—5.1Collect Requirements—5.2Define Scope—5.3Create WBS—5.4

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You are watching: The wbs is organized solely around project phases.

The project scope management plan, as a component of the project management plan, includes which of the following?

A Preparation of a detailed project scope statement B Creation of the work breakdown structure (WBS) C Specifications for formal verification and acceptance of completed project deliverables D All of the above

You are creating your WBS and find that you keep decomposing tasks into smaller and smaller units. How can you tell when you are done?

A Keep decomposing tasks until you reach an amount of work that is small enough to reliably estimate required resources and duration. B Keep decomposing tasks until you reach an amount of work that can be accomplished in one hour. C Keep decomposing work until you reach an amount of work that can be accomplished in your organization’s basic work unit. D Keep decomposing work until you reach a predetermined number of hierarchy levels to keep the WBS balanced.

Which of the following is a valid input to the collect requirements process?

A Project charter B Requirements traceability matrix C Validated deliverables D Work performance information

Answers

Answer D is the best response. The project scope management plan includes preparation of a detailed project scope statement, creation of the WBS, and a process specifying how formal verification and acceptance of the completed project deliverables will be obtained.Answer A is correct. A properly sized work package is one that is small enough to allow for reliable estimates for required resources and duration. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect because they assume that you are working toward some artificial target that does not contribute to appropriately sized work packages.Answer A is correct. The project charter is one of two defined inputs for the collect requirements process. (The other input is the stakeholder register.) Answer B is incorrect because the requirements traceability matrix is an output for the collect requirements process. Answers C and D are incorrect because they refer to inputs from other processes.

Scope management is the set of processes which ensures that the requirements of the customer are captured in a specification of work that ensures the delivery of the project’s deliverables, that all the project work is done, and that only the work required to complete the project is done. In other words, scope management makes sure that the project is completed without expending any unnecessary effort.

Plan Scope Management

The first process in scope management is a new process, plan scope management. The PMBOK Guide, Fifth Edition, adds several processes to separate the initial planning activities from other activities. While all the processes you will learn about in this chapter relate to planning, the new initial processes in scope management and three other process groups bring attention to the importance PMI places on proper planning. The plan scope management process creates the scope management plan. The scope management plan describes the project scope and documents how it will be further defined, validated, and controlled. This process results in a plan that gives the project team guidance on how to manage the scope throughout the project life cycle. Table 4.2 shows the inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs for the plan scope management process.

TABLE 4.2 Plan Scope Management Inputs, Tools and Techniques, and Outputs

Organizational process assets

Inputs

Tools and Techniques

Outputs

Project management plan

Expert judgment

Scope management plan

Project charter

Meetings

Requirements management plan

Enterprise environmental factors

Collect Requirements

The second process in the scope management process group is the collect requirements process. This process seeks to use multiple tools and techniques to collect all the project requirements from all the stakeholders. This process attempts to leave no stone unturned and results in a complete list of project requirements. When properly performed, the collect requirements process dramatically reduces surprises as the project moves toward completion. Table 4.3 shows the inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs for the collect requirements process. Pay particular attention to the various creative methods you can employ to develop a list of project requirements.

TABLE 4.3 Collect Requirements Inputs, Tools and Techniques, and Outputs

Inputs

Project charter

Stakeholder register

Questionnaires and surveys

Observations

Prototypes

Benchmarking

Context diagrams

Document analysis

Tools and Techniques

Outputs

Scope management plan

Interviews

Requirements documentation

Requirements management plan

Focus groups

Requirements traceability matrix

Stakeholder management plan

Facilitated workshops

Group creativity techniques

Group decision-making techniques

Define Scope

The next process, define scope, is a process that clearly states what the project will and will not accomplish. The supporting documents are reviewed to ensure that the project will satisfy the stated goals, and the resulting scope should state the stakeholders’ needs and clearly communicate the expectations for the performance of the project. Table 4.4 shows the inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs for the define scope process.

TABLE 4.4 Define Scope Inputs, Tools and Techniques, and Outputs

Inputs

Organizational process assets

Tools and Techniques

Outputs

Scope management plan

Expert judgment

Project scope statement

Project charter

Product analysis

Project document updates

Requirements documentation

Alternatives identification

Facilitated workshops

Work Breakdown Structure: A Common and Dangerous Omission

Many inexperienced project managers move too quickly from the scope statement to the activity sequencing processes. This practice is a mistake and often leads to activity omissions and inaccurate plans. PMI stresses the importance of creating a work breakdown structure (WBS) before moving to activity management processes.

A WBS provides the project manager and project team with the opportunity to decompose the high-level scope statement into much smaller, more manageable units of work, called work packages. The resulting WBS should provide a complete list of all work packages required to complete the project (and nothing more). Table 4.5 shows the inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs for the create WBS process.

TABLE 4.5 Create WBS Inputs, Tools and Techniques, and Outputs

Inputs

Enterprise environmental factors

Organizational process assets

Tools and Techniques

Outputs

Scope management plan

Decomposition

Scope baseline (project scope statement, WBS, and WBS dictionary)

Project scope statement

Expert judgment

Project document updates

Requirements documentation


ExamAlert

The PMI Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structures is the guide you need to use for the PMP exam. This is an example of information on the exam that goes beyond the PMBOK. You can find this document in the publications section of the PMI website (http://www.pmi.org/en/PMBOK-Guide-and-Standards/Standards-Library-of-PMI-Global-Standards.aspx).


In creating the WBS, the project team repeatedly decomposes the work of the project into smaller and smaller units of work, and the result is a collection of small work packages. The process continues until the resulting work packages are simple enough to reliably estimate duration and required resources. Don’t go overboard, though. When you have work packages that are manageable and each represent a single work effort, stop the process. Each project is different, so this process results in different levels of detail for each project.


ExamAlert

The term work package refers to an individual project activity. The work package is the lowest-level WBS component. According to the PMBOK, “A work package can be scheduled, cost estimated, monitored, and controlled.”


The last main feature of the WBS is that it is organized in a hierarchical fashion. The highest level is the project. The children that represent project phases, divisions, or main deliverables are listed under the project. Each child process or task is divided into further levels of detail until the lowest level, the work package, is reached. Figure 4.2 depicts a sample WBS with multiple levels.


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FIGURE 4.2 Sample work breakdown structure.


In addition to the WBS itself, another output of the create WBS process is the WBS dictionary. The WBS dictionary is a document that supports the WBS by providing detailed information for each work package. The WBS dictionary can contain many types of information, including

Work package name or identifierAccounting code identifierDescription of workTechnical specificationsQuality requirementsOwner or responsible party assignmentRequired resourcesList of schedule milestonesAssociated schedule activitiesCost estimatesAcceptance criteriaContract information

Cram Quiz

Answer these questions. The answers follow the last question. If you cannot answer these questions correctly, consider reading this section again until you can.

See more: Formats And Editions Of The American Promise 5Th Edition Pdf /Epub)

As project manager, you are about to start the define scope process. You have the project charter and the organizational process assets list. Because there are no change requests in your project at this point, what must you have before you begin?

A Product analysis B Requirements documentation C Updates to project documents D WBS

What does a project scope statement document?

A What work is to be completed during the project B What deliverables need to be produced by the project C Both A and B D Neither A nor B

The work breakdown structure (WBS) does all of the following except

A Organizes and defines the entire scope of the project B Divides the project into smaller, more manageable tasks C Serves as a high-level planning tool for work planned but not yet approved D Both A and B

Which of the following is an output of the collect requirements process?

A Scope management plan B Requirements management plan C Requirements risk breakdown D Requirements traceability matrix

Cram Quiz Answers

Answer B is correct. The requirements documentation is an input you need before starting the define scope process. Answer A is incorrect because product analysis is a tool and technique of define scope, not an input. Answer C is incorrect because project document updates are an output, not an input. Answer D is incorrect because the WBS is created in a subsequent process and is not available at this point. Know your inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of all processes.Answer C is the best response. A project scope statement documents what work is to be accomplished and which deliverables need to be produced. Answers A and B are both individually correct, but Answer C is the better response. Answer D is incorrect.Answer C is the correct response. The WBS provides a detailed definition of work specified in the current, approved project scope statement. Both Answers A and B describe the WBS and are therefore incorrect responses to the question.Answer D is the correct response. Answers A and B are incorrect because these are outputs of the plan scope management process. Answer C is incorrect because there is no such defined output as a requirements risk breakdown.