Picabia to be a French artist who embraced the many concepts of Dadaism and also defined some himself. He an extremely much took pleasure in going against convention and re-defining himself to work-related in new ways a number of times end a career that extended over 45 years. At very first he worked very closely with Alfred Stieglitz, who gave him his first one-man show in brand-new York City. Yet later he criticized Stieglitz, together is obvious in this "portrait" that the gallerist as a bellows camera, an vehicle gear shift, a brake lever, and also the word "IDEAL" above the camera in Gothic lettering. The fact that the camera is broken and the gear change is in neutral has actually been believed to indicate Stieglitz as worn out, when the difference decorative Gothic wording describes the outdated arts of the past. The drawing is one of a series of mechanistic portraits and imagery created by Picabia that, ironically, do not storage modernity or progress, but, like similar mechanistic works by Duchamp, present that together subject issue could provide an different to traditional artistic symbolism.

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Ink, graphite, and cut-and-pasted painted and printed papers on paperboard - Alfred Stieglitz Collection


Reciting the Sound city "Karawane"

Artist: Hugo Ball

Ball draft this costume for his power of the sound-poem, "Karawane," in i beg your pardon nonsensical valuation uttered in patterns created rhythm and emotion, yet nothing resembling any kind of known language. The resulting lack of sense was intended to recommendation the i can not qualify of European strength to resolve their diplomatic problems through the use of rational discussion, thus leading to civilization War i - equating the political case to the biblical illustration of the Tower of Babel. Ball"s strange costume is intended to further distance the from his audience and also his everyday surroundings, make his decided even much more foreign and also exotic. Ball defined his costume: "My legs to be in a cylinder the shiny blue cardboard, which came up to my hips so that i looked choose an obelisk. End it i wore a huge coat reduced out of cardboard, scarlet inside and gold outside. It to be fastened at the neck in such a way that I can give the impression that wing-like motion by raising and lowering mine elbows. I likewise wore a high, blue-and-white-striped witch doctor"s hat."

photo - Kunsthaus Zürich (reproduction of original photograph)


Untitled (Squares arranged according come the regulations of Chance)

Artist: Hans Arp

Hans Arp make a series of collages based upon chance, whereby he would certainly stand above a paper of paper, dropping squares of contrasting colored document on the larger sheet"s surface, and also then gluing the squares where they fell onto the page. The resulting setup could then provoke a more visceral reaction, like the fortune informing from I-Ching coins that interested Arp, and perhaps provide a further an imaginative spur. Apparently, this technique arose once Arp became frustrated by attempts to compose more formal geometric arrangements. Arp"s possibility collages have involved represent Dada"s target to it is in "anti-art" and their attention in accident as a method to difficulty traditional art manufacturing techniques. The lack of creative control represented in this occupational would additionally become a defining element of Surrealism together that group tried to find paths into the unconscious whereby intellectual manage on creative thinking was undermined.

Cut-and-pasted colored paper - Museum of contemporary Art, new York



Artist: Marcel Duchamp

Duchamp was the very first artist to use a readymade and his selection of a urinal was guarantee to difficulty and offend also his fellow artists. There is little manipulation the the urinal by the artist other than to revolve it upside-down and to sign it v a fictitious name. By remove the urinal from its everyday environment and placing the in an arts context, Duchamp was questioning straightforward definitions of art and also the duty of the artist in creating it. With the title, Fountain, Duchamp made a tongue in cheek referral to both the objective of the urinal also to famed fountains draft by Renaissance and Baroque artists. In that is path-breaking boldness the job-related has come to be iconic of the irreverence the the Dada movement towards both traditional artistic values and production techniques. Its affect on later on 20th-century artists such as Jeff Koons, Robert Rauschenberg, Damien Hirst, and also others is incalculable.

Urinal - Philadelphia Museum that Art



Artist: Marcel Duchamp

This job-related is a standard example of Dada irreverence towards timeless art. Duchamp changed a cheap postcard that the Mona Lisa (1517) painting, which had actually only recently been returned to the Louvre after ~ it to be stolen in 1911. While that was already a popular work that art, the publicity from the theft ensured that it became one the the most revered and also famous functions of art: art v a capital A. Top top the postcard, Duchamp attracted a mustache and a goatee ~ above Mona Lisa"s face and also labeled that L.H.O.O.Q. If the letters space pronounced together they would be through a native French speaker, it would certainly sound together if one were saying "Elle a chaud au cul," i m sorry loosely equates as "She has a hot ass." Again, Duchamp regulated to offend anyone while additionally posing questions that challenged creative values, creative creativity, and the as whole canon.

Collotype - Museum Boijmans valve Beuningen, Rotterdam


Cut v a Kitchen Knife Dada through the critical Weimar Beer Belly cultural Epoch of Germany

Artist: Hannah Höch

Hannah Höch is well-known for her collages and photomontages written from newspaper and also magazine clippings and also sewing and craft designs regularly pulled from publication she contributed to at the Ullstein Press. As part of society Dada in Berlin, Hoch unabashedly critiqued German culture by literally slicing personally its imagery and reassembling it into vivid, disjointed, emotional depictions of contemporary life. The title of this work, refers to the decadence, corruption, and also sexism of pre-war German culture. Larger and more political than her typical montages, this fragmentary anti-art occupational highlights the polarities the Weimer politics by juxtaposing pictures of establishment people with intellectuals, radicals, entertainers, and also artists. Recognizable faces encompass Marx and also Lenin, Pola Negri, and also Kathe Kollwitz. The map the Europe that identifies the countries in i m sorry women had already completed the best to vote says that the recently enfranchised ladies of Germany would shortly "cut" through the masculine "beer-belly" culture. Her inclusion the commercially produced designs in her montages damaged down distinguish between modern art and also crafts, and also between the public sphere and domesticity.

Cut document collage - nationwide Gallery, State Museum that Berlin

The soul of our Time

Artist: Raoul Hausmann

This assemblage represents Hausmann"s disillusion with the German government and also their inability to make the alters needed to develop a better nation. It is one ironic sculptural illustration the Hausmann"s id that the median member of (corrupt) society "has no an ext capabilities than those i m sorry chance has glued come the external of his skull; his brain remains empty". Hence Hausmann"s usage of a cap maker"s fake to stand for a blockhead who deserve to only experience that which deserve to be measured v the mechanical devices attached to its head - a ruler, a tape measure, a pocket watch, a jewelry crate containing a typewriter wheel, brass knobs native a camera, a leaky telescopic manufacturer of the sort supplied by soldiers throughout the war, and also an old purse. Thus, over there is no ability for critical thinking or subtlety. V its blank eyes, the fake is a narrow-minded, blind automaton.

Chinese Nightingale

Artist: Max Ernst

Ernst"s use of photomontage was less political and more poetic than those of various other German Dadaists, creating images based upon random associations of juxtaposed images. He defined his method as the "systematic exploitation of the chance or artificially enraged confrontation of 2 or more mutually extraterrestrial realities on an obviously inappropriate level - and also the poetic spark that jumps across when these realities strategy each other". in between 1919 and also 1920, ernst made a collection of collages that an unified illustrations of war machinery through those of human limbs and various equipment to create strange hybrid creatures. Therefore the are afraid generated by weaponry was combined with bright elements and also often lyrical titles. This catharsis no doubt had actually a an individual resonance because that Ernst that was hurt in the war by the recoil of a gun. In The Chinese Nightingale, because that example, the arms and fan of an asian dancer act together the limbs and also headdress that a creature whose human body is an English bomb. One eye has been added above the bracket on the side of the bomb to develop the impact of a bizarre bird. Therefore Ernst"s whimsy defuses the fear associated with bombs. The title was taken from a fairy story by Hans Christian Andersen.

Merzpicture 46A. The Skittle Picture

Artist: kurt Schwitters

This is very early example of assemblage in i beg your pardon two and also three dimensional objects are combined. Words "Merz," which Schwitters provided to describe his art practice and also his separation, personal, instance pieces, is a nonsensical word, favor Dada, the Schwitters culled from the word "commerz", the an interpretation of which he explained as follows: "In the war, points were in destructive turmoil. What I had actually learned at the academy was of no use to me.... Every little thing had damaged down and new things had to be made the end of the fragments; and this is Merz". In his Merzpictures, which have actually been dubbed "psychological collages," that arranged discovered objects - usually detritus - in simple compositions that transformed trash into beautiful functions of art. Even if it is the products were string, a ticket stub, or a chess piece, Schwitters thought about them come be equal with any type of traditional art material. Merz, however, is not ideological, dogmatic, hostile, or political as is much of Dada art.

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Assemblage that wood, oil, metal, plank on board, v artist"s framework - The Tate Modern, London


Artist: guy Ray

Man beam was an American artist that spent many of his working years in France. He termed his experiments rayographs, which space photographs do by placing objects straight on sensitized document and exposing them come light. The random objects leaving behind a shadowy imprint the dissociates them from their initial context. These works, v their frequently strange combination of objects and also ghostly appearance, reflect the Dada interest in chance and also the nonsensical. As various other Dada artist liberated painting and sculpture indigenous its traditional role as a representational art, ray did the very same for photography - in his hand it was no much longer a mirror of nature. Ray"s exploration of the rayograph to be itself based on chance: after ~ he had forgotten come expose an image and was waiting for picture to appear in the dark room, he put some objects ~ above the photo paper. Upon see them, Tzara called them "pure Dada creations" and also they were an prompt hit among like-minded artists. While male Ray did not invent the photogram, his to be the most famous.